Lay Description

The study will test:

  1. whether estrogen treatment in transwomen is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and beta cell function
  2. whether testosterone treatment in transmen is associated with worsening insulin sensitivity and beta cell function
  3. whether estrogen therapy leads to enhanced immune response in older transwormen


  • Other
IRB Number
NCT Number
Open to Enrollment


Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • Healthy volunteers: healthy male or female
  • MTF transgender
  • FTM transgender
  • Non-diabetic (A1c<6.5%), fasting glucose <126mg/dl and OGTT after 2 hr <200mg/dl)
  • Stable hormone treatment (estrogen or testosterone) for at least 6 months

Exclusion Criteria

  • History of or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus
  • For healthy volunteers, not current treatment with estrogen or testosterone
  • For FTM transgender, no recent cardiovascular event: acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke (CVA)
  • For MTF and FTM transgender, less than 6 months of stable hormone treatment
  • Anemia with hemoglobin (Hb) <11.0 hematocrit (Hto) < 34 and Glomerular Filtration rate (GFR) <30

Study Design

Arm Groups

Study Contact

Andrea Hansis-diarte
+1 (210) 617-5300

Susan Kaiser

Devjit Tripathy
(210) 567-6691

Andrea Hansis-diarte
+1 (210) 617-5300

Susan Kaiser

Principal Investigator
Devjit Tripathy